利用Prometheus与Grafana对Mysql服务器的性能监控详解

Prometheus是源于 Google Borgmon的一个开源监控系统,用 Golang开发。被很多人称为下一代监控系统。Grafana是一个开源的图表可视化系统,简单说图表配置比较方便、生成的图表比较漂亮。下面就介绍了利用Prometheus与Grafana对Mysql服务器性能监控的方法。

概述

Prometheus是一个开源的服务监控系统,它通过HTTP协议从远程的机器收集数据并存储在本地的时序数据库上。它提供了一个简单的网页界面、一个功能强大的查询语言以及HTTP接口等等。Prometheus通过安装在远程机器上的exporter来收集监控数据,这里用到了以下两个exporter:

  1. node_exporter – 用于机器系统数据
  1. mysqld_exporter – 用于Mysql服务器数据

Grafana是一个开源的功能丰富的数据可视化平台,通常用于时序数据的可视化。它内置了以下数据源的支持:

 

 

并可以通过插件扩展支持的数据源。

架构图

下面是本次部署的架构图

安装并运行Prometheus

1. Monitor 上安装 Prometheus

安装至/opt/prometheus

 

$ wget https://github.com/prometheus/prometheus/releases/download/v1.5.2/prometheus-1.5.2.linux-amd64.tar.gz

$ tar zxvf prometheus-1.5.2.linux-amd64.tar.gz

$ mv prometheus-1.5.2.linux-amd64 /opt/prometheus

2.在安装目下编辑配置文件 prometheus.yml

 

1 vim /opt/prometheus/prometheus.yml

 

# my global config

global:

scrape_interval: 15s # Set the scrape interval to every 15 seconds. Default is every 1 minute.

evaluation_interval: 15s # Evaluate rules every 15 seconds. The default is every 1 minute.

# scrape_timeout is set to the global default (10s).

# Attach these labels to any time series or alerts when communicating with

# external systems (federation, remote storage, Alertmanager).

external_labels:

monitor: ‘codelab-monitor’

# Load rules once and periodically evaluate them according to the global ‘evaluation_interval’.

rule_files:

# – “first.rules”

# – “second.rules”

# A scrape configuration containing exactly one endpoint to scrape:

# Here it’s Prometheus itself.

scrape_configs:

# The job name is added as a label `job=<job_name>` to any timeseries scraped from this config.

– job_name: ‘prometheus’

# metrics_path defaults to ‘/metrics’

# scheme defaults to ‘http’.

static_configs:

– targets: [‘localhost:9090’]

# 以下是添加的部分

– job_name: linux

static_configs:

– targets: [‘172.30.251.214:9100’]

labels:

instance: db1

– job_name: mysql

static_configs:

– targets: [‘172.30.251.214:9104’]

labels:

instance: db1

其中:172.30.251.214是MySQL的IP,端口则是对应的exporter的监听端口。

3.启动Prometheus

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[loya@centos6 prometheus]$ ./prometheus

INFO[0000] Starting prometheus (version=1.5.2, branch=master, revision=bd1182d29f462c39544f94cc822830e1c64cf55b) source=main.go:75

INFO[0000] Build context (go=go1.7.5, user=root@a8af9200f95d, date=20170210-14:41:22) source=main.go:76

INFO[0000] Loading configuration file prometheus.yml source=main.go:248

INFO[0000] Loading series map and head chunks… source=storage.go:373

INFO[0000] 0 series loaded. source=storage.go:378

INFO[0000] Starting target manager… source=targetmanager.go:61

INFO[0000] Listening on :9090 source=web.go:259

Prometheus内置了一个web界面,可以通过http://monitor_host:9090进行访问:

在Status->Targets页面下,可以看到我们配置的两个Target,它们的State为DOWN。

4.接下来需要在被监控机器上安装并运行exporter

下载exporters并解压:

 

$ mkdir /opt/prometheus/prometheus_exporters

$ cd /opt/prometheus/prometheus_exporters

$ wget https://github.com/prometheus/node_exporter/releases/download/v0.14.0-rc.1/node_exporter-0.14.0-rc.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz

$ wget https://github.com/prometheus/mysqld_exporter/releases/download/v0.9.0/mysqld_exporter-0.9.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz

$ tar zxvf node_exporter-0.14.0-rc.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz

$ tar zxvf mysqld_exporter-0.9.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz

# 将各自的可执行文件移动到/opt/prometheus/prometheus_exporters

$ ll /opt/prometheus/prometheus_exporters

total 24464

-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 12182376 Feb 23 19:01 mysqld_exporter

-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 12862209 Feb 23 19:01 node_exporter

运行node_exporter

 

$ cd /opt/prometheus/prometheus_exporters

$ ./node_exporter

INFO[0000] Starting node_exporter (version=0.14.0-rc.1, branch=master, revision=5a07f4173d97fa0dd307db5bd3c2e6da26a4b16e) source=”node_exporter.go:136″

INFO[0000] Build context (go=go1.7.4, user=root@ed143c8f2fcd, date=20170116-16:00:03) source=”node_exporter.go:137″

INFO[0000] No directory specified, see –collector.textfile.directory source=”textfile.go:57″

INFO[0000] Enabled collectors: source=”node_exporter.go:156″

INFO[0000] – entropy source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – loadavg source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – stat source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – diskstats source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – textfile source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – vmstat source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – meminfo source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – filefd source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – filesystem source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – mdadm source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – netdev source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – sockstat source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – time source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – zfs source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – edac source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – hwmon source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – netstat source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – uname source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] – conntrack source=”node_exporter.go:158″

INFO[0000] Listening on :9100 source=”node_exporter.go:176″

mysqld_exporter需要连接到MySQL,所以需要MySQL权限,我们为其创建用户并赋予所需的权限:

 

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mysql> GRANT REPLICATION CLIENT, PROCESS ON *.* TO ‘prom’@’localhost’ identified by ‘abc123’;

mysql> GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.* TO ‘prom’@’localhost’;

创建.my.cnf文件并运行mysqld_exporter:

 

$ cd /opt/prometheus/prometheus_exporters

$

$ cat << EOF > .my.cnf

[client]

user=prom

password=abc123

EOF

$

$ ./mysqld_exporter -config.my-cnf=”.my.cnf”

INFO[0000] Starting mysqld_exporter (version=0.9.0, branch=master, revision=8400af20ccdbf6b5e0faa2c925c56c48cd78d70b) source=mysqld_exporter.go:432

INFO[0000] Build context (go=go1.6.3, user=root@2c131c66ca20, date=20160926-18:28:09) source=mysqld_exporter.go:433

INFO[0000] Listening on :9104 source=mysqld_exporter.go:451

回到Prometheus web界面Status->Targets,可以看到两个Target的状态已经变成UP:

安装和运行Grafana

安装:

Grafana 的安装官方文档比较清晰,这里不再赘述。

配置:

编辑配置文件/etc/grafana/grafana.ini,修改dashboards.json段落下两个参数的值:

 

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[dashboards.json]

enabled = true

path = /var/lib/grafana/dashboards

导入Prometheus Dashboard:

 

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$ git clone https://github.com/percona/grafana-dashboards.git

$ cp -r grafana-dashboards/dashboards /var/lib/grafana

启动:

 

1 $ /etc/init.d/grafana-server start

通过http://monitor_host:3000访问Grafana Web界面(缺省帐号/密码为admin/admin)

登录后,通过Data Sources页面添加数据源:

然后就可以通过选择不同的仪表盘(左上角)和时间段(右上角)来呈现图表:

System Overview:

MySQL Overview:

总结

以上就是这篇文章的全部内容,希望本文的内容对大家的学习或者工作能带来一定的帮助,如果有疑问大家可以留言交流.

 

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